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Personality Book -Pervin

Chapter 3-4
Freud -1856-1939

-Born in Austria

-favorite of mom.

-couldn't b/c great minister/general like he wanted b/c he was Jewish

-studied medicine under Ernst Bruke

->had physical theory of 'conservation or energy'

->infl. Freud’s theory of psych. conservation of energy.

-Freud started researching neurology - i.e. comparing fetal and

adult brain.

-->thought that original structures remain the same -->later deb.

into his psych theories

-Jean charcot - psychiatrist who helped neurotics w/ hypnosis

-->Freud spent a year w/ him

Freud's terms:

Catharsis: release of emotional feeling through talking one's problems

-->early technique - b/f psychoanalysis

Free Association: thoughts expressed w/o inhibitions/falsifications

-->led to the book interpretation of dreams

Death instinct: a wish to die - in opposition to life instinct (wish for survival)

  1. psychopathology of everyday life
  2. 3 essays of the theory of sexuality


-relation b/w sexuality and perversions/neurosis

-caused a lot of noise

Moses and monotheism

-dealt w/ anti-sematism

->a/s towards J = misplaced

Freud's view of person and society

Person = energy system

->if not used in one way, it would be used in another!

-goal of b/h = pleasure!

->if blocked from 1 channel, if would be used in another

Freud: Humans have sexual/aggression/life/death drives

-aggression/death drives ->theory dev. after WWI

Pleasure principle: unbridled gratification drive

->problem: it is against social standards

Modern research: suppression of exciting thoughts (i.e. sex)

->suppression is also a factor in negative emotional responses/phobias/obsessions

-only lately did psych use scientific methods, and not only analysts' observations

Freud's psychoanalytical theory

Freud: psychoanalysts should focus on uncovering the unconscious

->much energy is spent expressing unconscious forces ->infl. b/h

Levels of unconsciousness:

Tools to uncover unconscious

Unconscious is

1) Alogical -opposites can exist

2) Disregards time - things of diff. time periods can coexist

3) Disregards space: - diff size/distance relationships are neglected

4) Symbolization

Motivated unconscious

-much of our b/h is motivated by unconscious

->thoughts/feelings/memories exists in our unconscious


Ways to express our underlying unconscious motives:

Relevant Psychoanalytical psychological research

=everything must be studies indirectly - never directly observed

-i.e. hypnosis - to get people to recall previously forgotten things

Post-hypnotic suggestion =acting w/o knowing that they are behaving

out of suggestion

Catharsis =sudden emotional outburst when recalling a hidden memory -shows unconscious emotional pain.

Experimental proofs (as opposed to observational proofs)

1) perception w/o awareness -i.e. subliminal perception

->stimuli registered yet too low for awareness


-2 groups shown quick flash of a tree

->1 of them, the branches shaped into a duck

->>then asked to draw a nature picture

Perceptual defense:

-Neutral vs. sexual words flashing fast ->slowing down until they could be recognized

-sweat glands also measures

->showed emotional response b/f they recognized word

->selective respond/reject stimuli ->unconscious?

2) Subliminal psychodynamic activation

Experiment #1

-Showing quickly flashing conflict/reassuring messages

->i.e. showing females: ‘loving dad is ok/wrong’

-effects psych disturbance ->even though it was flashed so fast that it was only subliminally perceived.

Experiment #2

-women w/ eating disorder subliminally shown either

-in 2nd case, more crackers eaten.

->subliminal effect on the unconscious ->led to unconscious motivation on b/h

-Some non-psychoanalytical psych’s: still, some acts are conscious –not everything is unconscious

Psychoanalytical unconscious: irrational/illogical/involved in repressed though

Cognitive unconscious: still, no diff. b/w unconscious/unconscious cognitive though.

->focus on non-motivated


Structural model

Freud -1923

Id: drive energy –pursuit of pleasure/avoidance of pain

Ego: satisfy id w/ reality and superego in mind –uses reality principle

Superego: morality –tries to control b/h

Reality principle:

-Gratifying the instincts is delayed until most of the pleasure could be obtained w/ least pain/negative consequences.

->i.e. id is delayed/locked/diverted/released gradually

->temporary suspension of the pleasure principle

Freud: ego =weak structure, which serves 3 masters:

-relationship is like a rider on a horse –it usually controls horse, but sometimes, it has to navigate the horse where it wants to go

Later theories:

-Ego has its own power: it could achieve pleasure by merely creating a conflict-free environment

->Called competence motivation

Anna Freud:

Dev. the concept of ego ->’ego psychology’

Pleasure – could also be achieved in the conflict-resolution of the ego

->ego has a drive-energy of its own and will give pleasure in mastery of the environment

-> ‘competence motivation’ (white)

Modern measures of ego:


- Expression of energy: drives or instincts

-->constant/inescapable forces

-during daily life, instincts have to be:

-dynamic aspect of psychoanalytical theory: interplay b/w inhibition/expression of instincts

Anxiety: pain associated w/ threat/danger to person, where external danger is unknown

-->i.e. threat to ego.

-->i.e. if previous trauma (i.e. situation/punishment) is or isn’t remembered

-->as opposed to fear – external tension in known

Defense mechanism – way to deal w/ anxiety

Growth and Development

Primary process: unconscious thinking: where reality and fantasy is indistinguishable

Secondary process: conscious thinking/reality testing ->ego/superego


Experiential thinking: thinking that is based on feelings/experience

->associated w/ primary thinking ->associated w/intuitive/interpersonal situations

Rational thinking: based on intellect

->Associated w/ secondary thinking

->thought of as a later evolutionary way of thinking

-conflict /w 2 systems ->i.e. intuition vs. rational choices

-ind. diff. in h.m each is available in each situation

Development of instincts

-Instincts – imp. in the psychoanalytical theory

-source of instincts: bodily tensions in certain regions of body

->Erogenous zones

Psychoanalytical theory


-through the biologically determined dev., there are determined erogenous zones

  1. Mouth -oral
  2. Anus –Anal –2-3 yr.
  3. Genitals -phallic

Oral stage

-early gratification: feeding/sucking/etc.

-adult extensions: smoking/kissing/eating/chewing gum

-phrases like food for thought/regurgitate

Anal stage

-ages 2-3:

-movement of feces through anal:

-holding off pleasure of relief for avoidance of (social) punishment

->decision – element of control

phallic stage

-age: 4-5

-differentiation of sexes leads to psych. differentiations ->i.e. genitals

Males in phallic state

->castration anxiety: fear that dad will castrate kid

->affection for mom is rivaled to dad. (Oedipus complex)

->Oedipus complex: fantasy of killing dad and marrying mom

study: subliminal messages neutralizing the oedipal conflict (beating dad =ok)

->better dart score ->infl. ok unconscious motivational state

Females in phallic state

Penis envy: female loves dad –thinks her ‘missing’ organ will be restored by having child w/ dad

->in boy, Oedipal complex is abandoned by kid b/c castration anxiety

->in girl, penis envy starts off oedipal complex

Identification: as a resolution to the conflict, the kid identifies w/ the parent of the same sex.

->assuming of roles/values/actions

-Freud: all major aspects of our personality stem from the oral/anal/phallic stages

Latency stage:

-b/w 6 and 13, there are no new dev. in gratification of instincts

Genital stage

-onset of puberty

-all unresolved issues of previous stages come back to haunt us now.

->this accounts for at least some of adolescence probs.

Freud: healthy person: successful progression through stages


-More focus on psychosocial stages (unlike Freud’s sex-orientation)


Marcia: identity formation theory

4 possibilities:

  1. identity achievement: sense of identity achieved after exploration
  1. Identity moratorium: high level of psych functioning/intimacy
  1. identity foreclosure: identity w/o exploration
  1. identity diffusion: very confused about who they are ->vulnerable to low self-esteem

Erikson’s main new ideas:

  1. Emphasis on psychosocial as well as bio. drives
  2. Extended dev cycles into later part of life
  3. People look as much at past as much as past. How people look at future is part of their personality as well

Early experiences: isolated incidents not as imp as repeated incidents

->intensity of incident is also relevant

Chapter 4

Personality tests include: projective tests

Projective tests: ambiguous stimuli which is interpreted in a certain way by the participant

Emphasis on:

  1. organizes/structures external stimuli
  1. unconscious/defense mechanisms ->come out b/c of lack of guidelines/ambiguity
  2. holistic understanding based on relationships b/w parts ->b/h is not an expression on a single personality trait

Rorschach Inkblot Tests

-series of 10 inkblots

->participants asked to explain what they see in the inkblot

->tells examiners how person think/organizes things

i.e.: poorly related answer: fantasies/bizarre b/h

->things could be understood symbolically.

->i.e. 1 person explaining a inkblot as animals fighting/other: 2 people sharing

Other examples:

Explosion: aggression

->another indicator: b/h during responding.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

-some abstract pictures/others, of 2 or more people in an important situation

->reveals inhibited tendencies/unconscious

Uses include:

Personality type

Fixation: being stuck in a certain stage b/c too little or much gratification in that stage, so the kid is not able or willing to move on


Regression: return to the earlier mode of gratification

Oral personality

-fixation on the oral stage of dev.

-->always seeking something, whether aggressively or modestly

-narcissistic -->only think of themselves

-->others seen only in terms of what they can give (feed)

Resolved oral stage: I get

Anal personality

-unlike oral, must repress anal impulses

Important issues that anal impulses stem from:

Anal triad:

-change from the oral to anal:

--> ‘give me’ --> ‘I must obey you’

Resolved anal stage: I control

Phallic personality

-partial resolution of Oedipus complex


-will try to prove that they haven’t been castrated: ‘I am a man’

-->will try to look big.

-->excessively exhibitionistic

women: hysterical personality:

-as a young girl – ove-identity w/ mom/femininity

-naively flirt, not realizing their sexual intent

-->to maintain dad’s love

-->surprised to realize darker side

-Conflict b/w drive (i.e. anxiety/sex) and anxiety (i.e. fear of consequences)

Neurosis: conflict b/w id and ego

-->instincts and reality

Sympton: paralysis/compulsion, which expresses a repressed impulse

Cathartic hypnosis: alleviates neurotic b/h by releasing blocked emotion

->didn’t like it, since not all are susceptale to hypnosis

Dreams: using free association, one can go beyond the manifest content of dream

-Freud: dreams, like symptoms, are ways to partially express drives

-at first, freud thought that all you need in to uncover unconsciousness to relive tension of unconscious

Transference: dev. of attitude towards analyst similar to one w/ early parental relationships


individual psychology

feeling of inferiority = weakness in 1 organ – i.e. stuttering

Compensatory striving’ = mask/reduce pain

diff. w/ Freud: aggressive women:

Style of life: way to cope w/ feeling ->b/c part of personality

Will to power: way to cope w/ feeling of hopelessness from infancy

Striving for superiority:

Social interest:

-Innate interest relating to people/cooperation:

Freud: Bio

Adler: social/conscious

Carl Jung:

-thought freud put too much emphasis on sex

->made own school called analytical psych.

-libido also strives from pleasure/creativity.

Jung: beyond unconscious is a collective unconscious

Collective unconscious: shared by all b/c of collective ancestry

other jung theories

-struggle b/w opposing forces

  1. the mask we put on (persona) vs. our real selves
  2. anima (female) part of us ->rejecting it – too insensitive vs. animus (male part of us) rejecting it =too absorbed in motherhood
  3. introversion vs. extroversion

Jung: lifelong struggle to bring opposing forces to harmony

Karen Horney

-unlike Jung/Adler –didn’t reject Freud

-diff. from Freud:

Basic Anxiety: child’s feeling helpless in a potentially hostile world

->neurosis: faulty way to deal w/ it

3 way neurotic trends

‘feminine psychology’

-women are not as freud thought

->masochism in women is not bio but culturally dev.

->much more open change to change than Freud thought.

Sullivan: ‘interpersonal theory of psychiatry’ –1953

-early mom/child experience –imp. Fro dev. of anxiety/sense of self

-self dev. from reflected appraisals

->reflected appraisals: how I perceive others think of me

  1. good me: associated w/ me
  2. bad me: associated w/ pain/threat to security
  3. Not me: part of me which is rejected b/c anxiety is too much

2 important stages

  1. Juvenile: teachers/friends =more imp. Than b/f ->start to rival parents
  1. Preadolescence: i.e. friends of the same sex

object relation theory

-person tries to dev. a sense of self and protect it.

–>self esteem is vulnerable

-obj = people

Question of the theory:

-how does past experience infl. present

Emphasis: more on drive to have relationships and people then sexuality

Narcissism/narcissistic personality


-Disturbance in sense of self/self-esteem

-->sense of worthlessness/powerlessness

-->yet sense of grandiose/self importance

-->preoccupied w/ maintaining self-esteem

-more negativity to failure --i.e. anger

Exaggerated sense of:

-critical evaluation

-evaluates own performance better than peers

Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI)

-questionnaire measuring Narcissism

Attachment/adult personal relationships



Bowlby: 'attachment behavioral system' (ABS)

-child goes through phases in dev. of attachment to primary caregiver

-->uses this attachment as a secure base

'internal working model'

-infant dev. mental representation of self/primary caregiver

-->based on interactional experience

-emphasis on early relationships

'strange situation procedure'

-mom leaves and then returns

-->see how kid behaves

  1. secure: sensitive to departure happy to reunite
  2. anxious-resistant?
  3. anxious-avoidant: no protest to separation/little happiness to return
  4. anxious-ambivalent: difficulty leaving/difficulty returning. mixture: wants to be taken/wants to be dropped down.

Chapter 5

Phenomenological approach

-how person sees himself/world around him

->i.e. Rogers

->Gives value to the concept of self and its experience.

Phenomenal field: individual’s unique way of perception

Personality theory of Rogers


Self: total system of experiences/perceptions/meanings pertaining to me/I/self

Rogers’ ‘self’

  1. Primarily conscious (unlike Freud)
  2. System of perceptions (not an internal being)

Ideal self: the self-concept that I’d like to have


-dev. by Stephenson in 1953

-take (usually) 100 cards w/ statements about a personality trait

-i.e. ‘makes friends easily’

-make piles from least to most representing of me w/ middle pile (‘somewhat me’) –most cards


-could also be used to measure ideal self and the diff. b/w self and ideal self

Gender diff:

-w/ time, males b/c more self-confident and females –less confident

Other ways to find out subjective sense of self

  1. Adjective checklist -where one checks adjectives relating to him
  2. Semantic differential: finding out the semantic differential b/w seemingly opposing words (on scale of 1 to 7)

Perhaps: many diff. selves at diff times



Freud: emphasizes fixed elements of the personality

Rogers: personality structure = relative ->changes w/ time

Rogers: people/personality strives to move forward


-enjoyment/pleasure from activities which enhance the organism

Recent dev

-multifaceted cencept of mental health which includes

  1. acceptance by others
  2. autonomy
  3. environmental mastery
  4. purpose of life
  5. personal growth

-all were incorporated into ‘personal growth scale


Self-consistency/congruence: strive for consistency w/I self and b/w self vs. experiences


-person strives to maintain self-structure

->not avoid pain/gain pleasure


-if my self is diff. in diff roles (i.e. father/son/worker)

->my core role is not as integrated

->more problematic

->goes well w/ Rogers’ hypothesis

i.e. to feel cruel, yet view oneself as nice = incongruent

Sates of incongruence

-diff b/w perceived and experience (actual) self

->leads to anxiety

Subception: defense from self from the anxiety of the incongruence

2 kinds of defensive processes

  1. Distortion of the meaning of the experience
  2. Denial: of the existence of the experience

Cherdiff: slower to remember things threatening to self

Cartwright: better recall of congruent words.

Need of positive regard

Rogers: we have a need for positive regard

-if a child is imposed conditions of worth he will deny experiences: rift b/w experiences and self

-but if child is given ‘unconditional positive regard’ he won’t need to deny experiences

Rogers: natural growth (self-actualization) lies intrinsically in all organisms

-if need for positive regards by others b/c more important than being in touch w/ own feelings -> screening of experiences

->leads to incongruence

-for a kid: when doing something bad: there is a diff. b/w being told that he did something bad and the he is bad

Studies on parent-child relationship

Studies show:

Democratic parents:

Authoritarian parents


-kids’ perception of parents’ appraisal is the important thing – not their actual appraisals

Rogers: higher self-esteem: more creativity/less accepting of norms/values unless consistent w/ their observations!


-origins of self worth/self esteem: original home environment

->reflected appraisals: how the opinions of important others are

Parental attitude factors which infl.:

  1. Degree of acceptance: (i.e. affection/interest/warmth)
  2. Permissiveness vs. punishment
    • High self-esteem: high self esteem: firm yet rewarding
    • Low self-esteem: harsh/disrespecting

  1. level of democratic practices of parents

-more democratic – still has limits!

->yet non-coercive w/I the rules

-more authoritarian: less defined rules

->more rejecting/dictatorial/uncompromising

->lower self-esteem


3 conditions for origins of self-esteem

  1. total/nearly total acceptance of kids, by parents
  2. clearly define/enforced rules
  3. respect for individual w/I accepted limits


-if parent-child interaction stresses freedom/security

->more security later in life

Some say: self-esteem is not global but rather specific to situations

->could have self-esteem in academics but not in social situations

How people view goodness/badness


People have one of 2 views:

  1. Entity theory: a trait is fixed
  2. Incremental theory: a personality trait is changeable

-each view is specific to a trait

Chapter 6


Client-oriented therapy: client is not dependant but a responsible client

->therapy just helps clear obstacles for self-actualization


Self-experience discrepancy

-healthy person: open to experience: no threat to self-structure

->no defensiveness

-Defenses (denial/distortion) -lead to self-experience discrepancy

Self experience discrepancy

-self-experience discrepancy occurs when defenses try to maintain wholeness of self/positive self-regard


  1. Rationalizations: makes b/h consistent w/ self
  2. Fantasy: to make up a reality

->i.e. that all girls like him

  1. projection: if thing not consistent w/ self – it is projected on to others

Important distinction-perceptions excluded b/c they are contradictory – not derogatory!!!

Defenses – are not as important to Roger as to Freud

Discrepancies b/w parts of the self

Rogers: psych. pathology: problems b/w self concept and experiences

Other research: focuses also on actual self and ideal self

->bigger discrepancy = more problem


-modern dev, of Rogers

There is:

  1. Actual self
  2. Ideal self (hopes/ambitions)
  3. Ought self (duties/responsibilities)

Discrepancy b/w actual self and:

-Sometimes, there is a conflict b/w the two:

Rogers: therapy needs to bring change!


-at first, Rogers thought that therapist = nondirective

->his clients thought that it was too passive!

->then Rogers changes to client-centered approach

3 elements essential to the therapist

  1. Congruence [genuineness] ->w/o it, no basic trust
  2. Unconditional positive regard- provides non-threatening environment
  3. Empathic regard - - so client feels the experience is being understood

Studies show: more therapy success w/ warmer therapy climate


  1. basic strive t/w growth
  1. emphasis on therapeutic relationship
  1. Roger ties research/theory/therapy

2 shifts in Rogers’ life:

  1. from orthodox scientific system to a more personal/phenomenological approach
  2. From one-on-one approach to a small group approach

Lately:-renewed interest in concept of self (after Rogers in the 70’s)


->yet they are more cognitive

Yet: global self-esteem = more predictive of person’s reactions to succe3ss/failure than specific self-esteem

->Researchers agree w/ Rogers: Self-esteem is unconditional affect for oneself, regardless of perception of having any particular positive qualities

Other recent developments:


-How Much one acts like self vs. other false self-representations

Studies: more genuine and self-expressive = more extraverted/agreeable/conscientious


-Variant b/h across situations = fine as long as feeling authentic with oneself


Self-determination theory: people have an inherent need to act out in autonomous self-determinant way to do things that are intrinsically good for them and not be forces by internal or external forces

2 critical elements

  1. Self-initiated vs. controlled by others
  2. Chosen vs. compelled

-autonomous actions: more persistent

->associated w/ better health/well-being

Carver/Baird: it is the quality of motivation – not the actual goal that is important!

-in Asia ->not as self-determinant as N.A. Kids

-For Rogers, neurosis stems from incongruence

Human potential movement

->school of thought which Rogers was a part of

->this school of thought was seen as an alternative to psychoanalysis/behaviorism

-school of thought also included:

Kurt Goldstein


Goldstein: feels that Freud: knows ‘lust of release – not pleasure of tension’

->Motive for people could also be self-actualization


-unlike behaviorist/psychoanalysis, the human potential movement assumes that humans are intrinsically good

Maslow: people should be free to express themselves w/o societal obstacles

  1. Maslow dev. a list of triangle/pyramid of needs from basic needs to imp. Psych needs
  2. Actualizing people: accept themselves/others for what they are
    • Free to recognize others’ needs, yet concerned w/ themselves
    • Instead of mechanical/stereotyped reaction, they b/h in unique ways to everyone
    • Spontaneous/creative
    • Form intimate relations
    • Can resist conformity/assess themselves yet meet demands of reality

Maslow’s pyramid

Self actualization





Optimal experience/flow


Flow: positive states of consciousness



Existentialism: concern w/ existence – the person in the human condition

-->some things are basic/fundamental to the human existence

  1. Experience is taken seriously
  2. Ind. is unique/irreplaceable/singular

Existential focus on:

  1. Freedom/consciousness/self-reflection
  2. Responsibility (for action/choices/being authentic)
  3. Fear of death -->loneliness
  4. Phenomenology = focus on ind.’s experiences

Existential loneliness

-need for someone to listen/understand in a hostile, impersonal world

-->to drop outer shell

Victor Frankl:


-existential seeking of meaning

-->w/o will to meaning = neurosis

Meaning = spiritually rooted

Neurosis = escape from responsibility/freedom

-->blame destiny/childhood/fate/environment


-way to help existential neurosis

-->making them realize:

Criticism of existentialism


Studies show:

Other studies show:

-Many selves

-->if they are integrated (coherence), then it fits the consistent self

Cultural diff.:

In eastern cultures: self = more socially integrated

In western cultures: self = more individually centered

Conflict/Anxiety/Defense: Freud vs. Rogers

In both Freud/Rogers: defense = reduces anxiety

Rogers people falsify values/experiences for positive regard

Freud: experiences from the past do indeed bring anxiety!!!

Rogers: appears to emphasize pain of loss of positive regard, yet his main focus is congruency.

->incl. disregarding positive experiences for the maintaining of Self-concept

-->yet accepting negative characteristics consistent w/ Self-concept

Psychopathology and change


Rogers = lack of congruence b/w experience and self

-->yet unclear b/c paranoid schizophrenic has unrealistically high self-esteem (self) and high congruence, yet has a lot of defensiveness

-->perhaps, not satisfactory measure (ideal/self discrepancy)

Chapter 7

Trait approach to Personality: Allport/eysenck/Cattel

Trait: consistent pattern of how people act/feel/think

Important for

  1. Summarize
  2. Predict
  3. Explain person’s b/h

Basic views shared by trait theorists

  1. People’s traits could be described in how they b/h

  1. There is an organized hierarchy w/I personality


Trait theory of Gordon W. Allport

-Focus on human/healthy/organized thought

->based on nervous system, which set the general trends across situations

3 properties of personality


Kinds of traits

-trait = what a person is generally like – not in specific cases

Functional autonomy

Functional autonomy: though roots of motives (tension-reduction) of adults lie in kids’ motives, they have b/c independent

-->at first = reduction of anxiety/hunger

-->later, this effort b/c pleasure at its own right

-->what was instrumental b/c intrinsic

Idiographic research

Idiographic research: study of individuals

-->emphasis on self’s structure and organization, unrelated to others

-->as opposed to statistics


  1. publishing letters from person
  2. comparing 1 score of person to other scores of his (and not others’ scores)


-person could have conflicting dispositions

-many traits play in each b/h


Three-factor theory of Hans J. Eysenck

-Trait measurement: factor analysis

Factor analysis: a statistical method for determining which variable decrease or increase together -->used in development of personality and some trait theories

Superfactor: higher order of organization of traits than those derived from initial factors derived from factor analysis

Basic dimentions of personaliry

Eysenck: 2 dimension scales of personality:


-2 extremes – introversion/extroversion

-->on one plain towards each other = unstable traits

-->on other = stable traits





Later, he included another dimension: psychoticism

Eysenck’s 2-factor theory of personality: PEN: Psychoticism/Extroversion-introversion/neuroticism

Maudsley/Eysenck personality inventories -->tests to check introversion

Introversion-extroversion study on college students


Biological basics

-introverts – more aroused/learn inhibitions faster

-->more restraint/inhibited

-some bio/genetic origin for introversion/extroversion

-->brain activity/heart rate/hormone levels/sweat-gland activity

Eysenck –infl. of bio:

Neuroticism: nervous system more sensitive. by stress/slower calming down after danger is gone (than people w/ lower on neuroticism)

Psychoticism: also somewhat infl by genetics

-->Especially in relationship to maleness

-->personality – effected by genes

Psychopathology and behavioral change

Abnormal reaction:

=biological factors + learning of strong emotional reaction to a fear-producing stimuli


-->though there is genetic influences on b/h, there is still ability to change -->learnt b/h skills/undo learned b/h

Eysenck’s criticism of psychoanalysis school:

  1. not provable
  2. Neurosis/psychosis – diff problems – not diff. points on the regression continuum
  3. maladaptive b/h = bad learned responses – not unconscious motives
  4. all therapy – some sort of application of learning principles

Factor-analytic trait approach –Richmond Cattell


3 methods of study of personality

-multivariate and clinical both look for global and not fragmented patterns of b/h

-->though thought that clinical is not as 100% clear as multivariate

Factor analysis: to see which variables go up or down together (correlate)

Cattell’s theory of personality

Kinds of traits:

2 kinds of groupings

Distinction #1

Distinction #2

Sources of data: L-data/d-data/OT-data


L-data: Life-event-data ->rating by observer/peers

->objective as well as subjective sources

->i.e. b/h in everyday life

Q-data: Questionnaire-data ->based on self-report

OT-Data: Objective Test:

-Cattell uses factor-analysis to see which traits are really together or even the same

Catell’s results:


Questionnaires: =limited =could deceived by respondents

Life stories: limited = not applicable to mental patients

L-test vs. Q-test

-12 of the 16 Q-test traits – could be correlated w/ the L-test traits

->the other 4 traits are unique to the Q-test

Stability/variability in B/h

Erg: innate tendencies i.e. security/sex/self-assertion

Sentiments: environmentally determined motives

Illustrative sentiments:

Self-sentiments: -‘I want never to damage my self-respect’

Sentiments: usually help satisfy more basic ergs/biological needs


-states/roles also effect b/h

->Beyond motivational factors

: mood

->it is transient

-emotions/mood-changes ->infl. b/hust as much as traits

->same diff. b/w trait and state as Allport thought

Illustrative state incl.:


Role: what situation we’re in/place/status in society/etc.

->just like state – it has a transient influence

->b/h is more linked to situational infl. than to triats

Same person:

Chapter 8

Trait theory: the five-factor model; applications and evaluation of trait approaches to personality

-to fins out more about traits: questionnaires about traits and have factor-analysis to see which personality traits go together

->made the 5 trait factors

-studies show that they are stable into adulthood

Five-Trait factor

-Bipolar questions to find out traits of individuals (see p. 259)


-big-five model – seem to be somewhat cross-cultural, though hard to prove, since the translating b/w languages makes it problematic

Chapter 15

Cognitive – info-processing approach to personality

->how we organize/understand things in our head about reality/experiences


-way to deal w/ massive amount of info

  1. screen out info, not to be overwhelmed
  2. schemes –categorizations

Categories for physical objects

Rules of categorization:

  1. agreement w/I the order/hierarchy of categories
  2. high levels of agreements b/w subjects regarding characters of a specific category.
  3. No one thing defines a categorization, but rather a general patterns of characteristics which puts an obj w/I a category
  4. Diff. categorizations might overlap in some things
  5. Some things might not have all the things of a category, yet there is one ideal example of the category – called a prototype
  6. Hybrid: an obj. which is not clear which category it falls to ->when boundaries are unclear.
  7. The older we are, more trees are joined together – first – all cars are categorized->then all vehicles… etc…

categorization of situations

-also a hierarchy of situations

i.e. special social situation ->subcategory: going on a date

Situation scripts: a category of b/h for each category of situations

-some situations are highly scripted –i.e. going to a restaurant

->some are not –i.e. informal meeting w/ friends

Individual situation and associated feelings/ b/h

-there are things that are more individual in its categorization, i.e. hostile/tender/hostile situations

->each person categorizes things diff.

Categories for people

-When categorizing/judging people we’ve just met: Sometimes, we use neutral traits (i.e. tall); other times, we use value-based terms (hostile/nice/etc.)

-As seen in chapter 8:

Five Factor Model of personality traits (which might be used to categorize people)

  1. extraversion: introvert<-->extravert
  2. Conscientious: Responsible<-->irresponsible
  3. Neuroticism: emotionally stable<-->neurotic
  4. Etc.

-each category has subcategories

-->the more specific subcategory, the more specific response!

-Yet, ind. varies in:

-->similar to what Kelly was doing (chapter 11 –personal construct theory)

the self and self-schema

Markus: people categorize themselves just like anything else:

-->called self-schema

Example of self-scheme:

-One might have an independent-dependant self-schema –which others don’t

-->another might have a guilty-innocent self-scheme

-some see part of themselves as changeable vs. others who see this trait as fixed

-the self-schema helps us process stuff about ourselves:

[Info-processing approach]

-self-schema also infl. even things like sexual b/h

-->people w/ higher ‘Sexual self-schema’ enjoyed sex more

-->there is a ‘family of selves’ instead of one self

-->sometimes, it is hard to compare b/w selves

Motivational aspects of the self

-with time, not only processing error but also motivation/emotion was taken into account when relating to errors.

2 motives regarding the self has been note:


The relation of info-processing to traditional personality trait


Lazarus:= psychological stress = cognitions relating to his environment


Stress: when a person sees the circumstances as taxing/exceeding his resources/dangerous to well-being

2 stages of cognitive appraisal

  1. primary appraisal: is anything in danger?
  2. Secondary appraisal: seeing evaluation of things like the resource to see if harm is dealable.


  1. evidence of both stability/variability in coping
  1. higher stress ->more coping techniques
  1. form of coping ->often diff. in diff. contexts
    • Problem solving
    • Escape-avoidance
    • Confronting coping

Stress inoculation training

-dev. by Meichenbaum

->way to reduce stress through cognitive approach

->individual under stress = self-reducing/interfering thoughts

->those cognitions have a built in self-confirmatory component

->events perceived/recalled in a negative way

Procedure to:

i.e:. ‘it is such an effort to do anything’

->person might not be aware of them ot their negative effects

-coping techniques taught include

  1. relaxation
  2. reconstruction situations to make it more manageable

Possible techniques taught include

  1. define the prob.
  2. find possible alternative actions ->figure out best alternative
  3. coping w/ self-structure
  4. cope self-statements i.e.:
    • ‘one step at a time’
    • ‘focus on the present’
    • ‘keep on trying’

  1. Image rehearsal:-practice un real life situations


Cognitive/info-processing view:

-psychopathology = b/c unrealistic/maladaptive cognitions

Therapy: change them to better ones

Ellis’ rational-emotive therapy –(RET)

-psych difficulties stem from irrational beliefs or statements we make for ourselves

Faulty cognitions

Irrational beliefs: ‘if now is good –bad must be coming up’

Faulty reasoning: ‘I failed on this effort – therefore I must suck’

Dysfunctional expectancies: ‘/if something will go wrong, it will go wrong to me’

Negative self-view: ‘others are better than me’

Maladaptive attribution: ‘When I win = luck; when I lose: it is me’

Memory distortions: ‘life’s always been bad’

Maladaptive attribution: ‘all I am thinking about is how horrible it will be if I’ll fail’

-‘Don’t worry about it –you can’t do anything anyways’

Self-defeating strategies: ‘I’ll reject others b/f they’ll reject me – to see if they still like me’

->today, more focus on overt b/g than Ellis describes

Beck: cognitive therapy for depression

Psychological depression stems from:

Cognitive traits for depression

  1. negative view of self
  2. negative view of world
  3. negative view of future

Also: depressed uses faulty info-processing

-->i.e. magnifying small stuff

Research on faulty cognitions

Depressed people: more:

Questions stilled to be answered:

  1. do the above cause or result in depression?
  2. If they play causal role -->how do they dev.?

Evidence: faulty cognitions = latent (dormant) –only manifest under stress

-->therefore, relapse of depression in other situations of stress

Basic view: each problem: associated w/ type of thinking

Case of Jim

Summery: good self-efficacy in social/intellectual, but nit in creative thought/emotional relationship

Recent development

Increase in:

  1. Emotion/motivation i.e. motivational forces (i.e.: possible selves/self-goals)
  1. How emotions might be translated into actions
  1. non-western of looking at self

Relation of info-processing theory to traditional personality theory

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